Conventions. Published in the United States by Ballantine Books, a The autobiograhy of Malcolm X / with the assistance of Alex Haley; introduction by M. S. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Pages·· MB·1, Downloads· Spanish. Malcolm X. Vida y voz de un hombre negro. Egilea: Selección de autores. The newscast continued, "Among the items sold was the original manuscript of _The Autobiography of Malcolm X_, with actual handwritten notes by Malcolm X.
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Rodney Donahue. Multi-genre Paper. Eng Malcolm. X . "Malcolm X Biography - Life, Family, Children, Name, Death, History,. School, Mother, Young, Book, Old, Information, Born, Drugs, College,. House, Time, Year, Sister. ONE OF TIME'S TEN MOST IMPORTANT NONFICTION BOOKS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY In the searing pages of this classic autobiography, originally. The Autobiography of Malcolm X has changed the lives of many people, black and white, and shaped the perspectives of many more. Despite the changes that .
Malcolm also begins trafficking guns and starts using harder drugs. In talking about the unrealized professional potential of his intelligent black friends. Malcolm and Sammy make up. The city government shuts down the Savoy Ballroom. Profits dry up for the nightlife industry. For instance. Malcolm begins to depend increasingly on Reginald. Malcolm implies that white society is to blame for driving them into the spiral of crime. Conditions in Harlem begin worsening. Malcolm blames his bosses in the numbers lottery system for draining the black ghetto of wealth.
Though Malcolm does blame some black people for their actions. Two riots almost completely stop the flow of white tourists. Malcolm believes that wealthy white people not only exploit poor blacks on a daily basis. Later in the autobiography. Malcolm rents his first real apartment to ensure that he and his brother have a home.
Whenever Malcolm describes the white pleasure-seekers that patronize the Harlem underworld of forbidden music. Civil Rights leaders. Analysis—Chapters Five. In describing the Harlem ghetto. Harlem knows Malcolm too well for him to resume his drug-dealing there. In this instance. While Malcolm could easily blame white society and thereby ease his conscience and that of the black community in general.
Malcolm shows his belief that he had the power to protect her from harmful influences. Though money is tight. Malcolm includes most of the details in these chapters to expose us to the tough side of the ghetto. Malcolm shows that even people pushed to the brink of survival can form their own creative solutions to social problems. While Malcolm readily acknowledges that whites may be the source of such harmful influences. Shorty and Ella marvel at the transformed Malcolm.
He remains close to Sophia. They include Sophia and her sister to scope out white neighborhoods without arousing suspicion. In Malcolm is accused of robbing a craps game run by Italian racketeers. Malcolm insists he has remembered correctly. Using his reputation as ruthless and trigger-happy. Trapped Malcolm takes on a variety of odd jobs in Harlem. Malcolm takes a few weeks to unwind from the tension of his situation in Harlem.
Malcolm gets high on various drugs and wakes up long after the deadline. For six months he transports betting slips for the numbers lottery system.
Now the cops. Shorty and Malcolm do the actual burglary. He begins to feel tense just walking the streets of Harlem. One day. West Indian Archie humiliates Malcolm but does not shoot him. He likes the work and his boss.
Shorty picks him up and takes him to Boston. Malcolm sees Sophia and her sister in a black bar with a white. He returns to Harlem. Malcolm works for a madam. He quits his steering job and begins importing bootlegged liquor from Long Island for a Jewish businessman.
Malcolm begins to do cocaine again and talks excessively to Shorty and Sophia about future plans. Malcolm himself plays the numbers more and more heavily. West Indian Archie gives Malcolm until the next day to return the money.
They then describe what they see in the house to the men. Malcolm decides to find a new hustle. Malcolm hits a low point when West Indian Archie accuses him of collecting winnings on a bet he had not actually placed. To make ends meet.
Summary—Chapter Nine: Caught In Boston.
The next day Malcolm punches a young hustler in the face. Just as Malcolm thinks he is going to get shot. As Malcolm develops his understanding of race relations in prison. After Malcolm converts to Islam. This changing attitude toward racism influences his later espousal of anti—white rhetoric and militant black separatism.
Malcolm saunters over and addresses the women intimately. His conversion to Islam similarly leads him to a more expanded understanding of racial problems.
Just as his conversion to Islam offers him the possibility of redemption under Allah. Throughout his youth Malcolm sees himself primarily as a victim of unfair discrimination: He believes that the will of Allah has brought him to the righteous path by first putting him through suffering and sin.
He interprets this racism as a direct attack on him personally rather than as an attack on his race. Malcolm comes to view racism not as a personal attack on an individual but as a blind attack on blackness in general.
He now understands them on both a national and international level: Malcolm shows us the depths to which he sinks in Harlem so that we can understand the dramatic nature of the education and conversion he subsequently undergoes in prison.
The cleansing message of the religion has a powerful impact on him because he has led such a sinful life. Though Malcolm admits the destructive nature of his wild youth and condemns the activities in which he engaged.
In court his conviction for stealing is due as much to his relationship with a white woman as it is to his burglary.
The judge sentences him to ten years in state prison.
He begins to see black people in general. When police arrest Malcolm in a pawn shop. With this realization. Malcolm notes that the police cross-examine him on the origin and nature of his relationships with the women instead of on the crime of burglary with which he is charged. Whereas before his time in prison he responds to individual encounters of prejudice as separate instances of personal attacks.
Islam simultaneously humbles and affirms Malcolm.
Malcolm begins to think outside the hustler mindset of his youth. While deciding whether to convert. Studying the anti-British resistance of India and China. Yacub unleashed an evil race of white people on Europe who conspired to abuse nonwhites for 6. He remembers the social workers who split up his family. Malcolm writes to Elijah Muhammad every day and begins to pray.
Elijah Muhammad. According to Elijah Muhammad. Elijah Muhammad teaches that black people were stolen from Africa. He begins to undergo an overwhelming change and to feel that the sin and guilt of his past have prepared him to accept the truth of Islam. Malcolm first hears about the Nation of Islam from his family. White people forced them to adopt the names. Suffering from drug withdrawal and a fierce temper. Malcolm slowly copies out the whole dictionary longhand. The horror of slavery and the bold nineteenth-century revolts of Nat Turner and John Brown impact him deeply.
He also considers the white policemen. Malcolm thinks of all the white people he has ever known. In Malcolm moves to Norfolk Prison Colony.
Summary—Chapter Eleven: Saved To improve his writing skills. From reputable sources he learns that the first men and the great early civilizations were African. Every one of these people. He makes use of the small prison library. At the huge library there. Reginald is suspended from the Nation of Islam for sleeping with a secretary. Since the end of slavery. He resolves to devote the rest of his life to telling the white man about himself or to die trying.
Malcolm continues to seek converts to Islam among his fellow prisoners. Reginald goes insane. Malcolm does not help alleviate racism but rather stirs it up in a different direction. The voice that Malcolm uses in telling the story of his youth. He sees the world according to these rigid pairs. He is able to see that some white people may be bad. In reversing the racist association of white with good and black with bad. He is thrilled by his success in making a white minister publicly admit that Jesus was not white.
The language he uses to interpret his life contains only these sorts of absolute terms.
But because Malcolm longs for moral clarity. The anti—white prejudice that Malcolm adopts upon converting to the Nation of Islam differed from much twentieth-century American prejudice. He no longer thinks of people as strictly white. He almost always finds a way to work the idea of race into his arguments. Unlike prejudices against various ethnic.
The younger Malcolm views his life in terms of absolute good and evil. After Elijah Muhammad appears to Malcolm in a silent vision. Malcolm disowns Reginald and for the first time feels a stronger bond to his faith than to his family. Debate teaches him rhetorical skills he later uses to earn converts to the Nation of Islam.
In contrast. The Nation of Islam was the movement of a separatist minority with a very small following.
In Detroit Malcolm has little luck at first. Elijah Muhammad sends Malcolm to Philadelphia. Once the Boston temple is up and running. Only in the s did he reclaim his position as the head of the Nation of Islam.
Malcolm downloads a wristwatch. He mediated fights between his siblings and was frank but nonconfrontational with white employers. Ella is amazed at Malcolm. In Detroit. Summary—Chapter Thirteen: Minister Malcolm X Elijah Muhammad needs ministers for his growing nation. Malcolm asks Elijah Muhammad about recruitment techniques.
During this time. Malcolm fully develops his rhetorical style. Savior Yes! Elijah Muhammad was small of stature but bold. By the time Fard disappeared in Born in Georgia in In Over several months. During this period. He spent time in prison. Early in the summer of. When Malcolm is ready. Malcolm visits his old haunts and tries to convert Shorty. Elijah Muhammad sends him to Boston to aid in the founding of a temple there. Death threats from jealous rivals.
Elijah Muhammad advises Malcolm to court young people. Elijah Muhammad met Wallace D. He is surprised. The solidarity and austerity of his first Nation of Islam temple meeting excites Malcolm.
At dinner that night. Malcolm begins to speak at temple meetings and gains confidence as an orator. Elijah Muhammad was at the helm of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad appoints Malcolm to found the small New York Temple. By As in Boston. For ten years. Malcolm is so busy that the Nation downloads him a car to use for his travel between cities. Malcolm and his followers develop techniques for drawing blacks from black nationalist rallies and churches that advocate a return to Africa.
In picking up the tools of his trade as soon as he is released from prison. Malcolm seeks out his old crowd. Though the glasses serve the practical purpose of correcting the vision problems Malcolm has developed from years of reading in prison.
He is committed to the people and events of his daily life. The wristwatch represents his obsession with efficiently managing his busy daily schedule. Malcolm makes a symbolic commitment to a life of authority and responsibility with the Nation of Islam and beyond.
New York. The lack of response to his initial teachings frustrates Malcolm. Malcolm has so much luck winning over Christians that he refines his speaking style with them in mind. Malcolm has been celibate and fully devoted to his work.
Having taken a vow of poverty. The Nation of Islam gets public recognition when police attack one of its members. He hardly courts Betty. His travel allows him to interact with other blacks nationwide and other minorities worldwide.
They marry and settle in Queens. The wristwatch. Whereas his initial surrender to the detectives is a passive act of submission. Malcolm introduces Betty to Elijah Muhammad. In a woman named Betty joins the New York temple. Malcolm uses the story to draw attention to the trial of his faith that his difficult relationship with Elijah Muhammad creates.
In Chapter Malcolm is prepared to launch himself into a new and productive life. As the story goes.
Though these comparisons serve different purposes. With his commitment to his message. Although Elijah Muhammad inspires Malcolm to persist in the face of adversity. In the fall of Exposed to more radical ideas. Malcolm founds Muhammad Speaks. Part of this government interest comes from the high proportion of Nation of Islam members who are or were in prison. Malcolm now spends hours a day on the telephone defending the Nation and attacking his interviewers with countercharges.
Both titles enrage Malcolm. The Nation also succeeds in reforming drug addicts. The size and militance of the Nation attracts the attention of the FBI and the police. Chapters Fourteen. He begins turning down publicity opportunities in Life and Newsweek. A surge of publicity comes in Elijah Muhammad discourages any disparagement of other black leaders.
Elijah Muhammad disapproves of the university lecture circuit. Convicts embrace the Nation because their prison experiences have conditioned them both to take an especially grim view of white society and to excel at the discipline and austerity that the codes of the Nation demand. Malcolm X savors the excitement of the intellectual confrontations that follow his speeches at top universities. Now the second most sought-after university lecturer in America. Malcolm notices that his name is appearing less and less in Muhammad Speaks.
Summary—Chapter Fifteen: Malcolm travels as an emissary to places where leaders are becoming interested in the Nation of Islam project: At first the Nation admits no white people to these rallies. Black Muslims In By both the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X are inundated with publicity. Clay announces his Muslim affiliation after the fight. Malcolm decides that it is time for him to make his pilgrimage to the Islamic holy city of Mecca.
Malcolm keeps the growing network of mosques across America under his direct control as he expands the. To distance the Nation from such a controversial stance. Elijah Muhammad compares himself to the great men of scripture whose accomplishments outweigh their occasional transgressions. Malcolm envisions the organization as more inclusive and more active than the Nation of Islam in its pursuit of black political and economic independence. Elijah Muhammad silences Malcolm for a ninety-day period.
By never trusting anyone outside his close circle of friends.
Malcolm accepts this explanation and assumes that Elijah Muhammad will confess and explain himself to the Nation. Summary—Chapter Sixteen: Analysis—Chapters Fourteen. Kennedy is assassinated. Malcolm breaks an order by Elijah Muhammad that no minister comment on the assassination. Before things really get going. Malcolm accepts the invitation of boxer Cassius Clay for Malcolm and his family to stay in Florida while Clay prepares for his fight against Sonny Liston.
Malcolm hears rumors of a warrant out for his death. Malcolm pretends that he does not know about the allegations and changes his temple teachings to skirt the issue of the moral code.
Cut off from his sole source of income. To distance himself from the Nation of Islam and absorb the shock of the symbolic divorce. Malcolm asks Ella for money for the trip.
The sight of Clay. Elijah Muhammad does not publicly confess. Malcolm soon realizes. The skills Malcolm acquires as a hustler in Harlem also help him turn his ambitions for the expansion of the Nation of Islam into a reality.
Malcolm often wants to be engaged in action for racial justice. Malcolm puts his faith in Elijah Muhammad after the scandal breaks that Elijah Muhammad slept with his secretaries. Not afraid to ignore questions or answer questions that are different from the ones the press poses him. Although Malcolm and Elijah Muhammad both fight for black rights.
Malcolm uses his smooth-talking skill to fine-tune his public image to his advantage. Malcolm remains more interested in the plight of the poor. While his obsession with defending his image leads Malcolm to near-death in a duel with West Indian Archie. His occasional failure to follow these rules illustrates how important they are.
As Malcolm deals with the resistance of the police and the white press to his political activities. His understanding of the similarity between hustling individuals and hustling the public enables him to stay out of the way.
While Elijah Muhammad wants American blacks to be their own kind of middle-class Americans in conservative suits. Muhammad Speaks. His experience as a quick judge of character helps him run the new temples smoothly. Malcolm becomes ready to launch an informed counterattack.
Both men agree that the correct response to segregation is not integration but cultural and economic separation. Like a hustler. That there are such differences of opinion between two leaders within the same group illustrates the complexity of the race issue in America.
Officials send him to a crowded airport dormitory. At the end of the hajj. Malcolm then visits Liberia. Mecca America needs to understand Islam. Malcolm calls Omar Azzam. Malcolm describes his sense of wonder at Mecca. When Malcolm applies for a hajj visa. During his visit. Product Details. Inspired by Your Browsing History. Related Articles.
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By the s he had become apotheosised, his image reaching iconic proportions. But the idolisation, the hagiography and the crass commercialisation appeared to cheapen his legacy.
Haley, it should be mentioned, was a talented storyteller given to embellishment and even plagiarism, a charge which was proven in devastating fashion by Harold Courlander, from whose novel, The African, he had appropriated substantive plots and characterisations in order to create his international bestseller Roots. The book would also present, in a spirit of objectivity, perspectives of the Nation of Islam including interviews with its present leader, Louis Farrakhan.
The results are decidedly mixed. Contemporary academics who write about serious issues and personalities whose life stories are expected to find an audience outside of the ivory towers of academia can no longer produce manuscripts which are styled in an atypically desiccated drone, but instead are obliged to write consistently in engaging and vibrant prose. On this count Marable largely succeeds.